Breast cancer is a disease that affects women specifically, but it may affect men as well, albeit in a much smaller proportion.
Doctors have recently made great achievements in the fields of early detection and treatment of breast cancer, reducing the number of deaths from the disease.
Previously, the detection of breast cancer meant a complete removal of the breast, but today, these operations are only performed in rare cases, as there is a wide range of treatments available.
Breast cancer symptoms
Awareness and awareness of the early signs and symptoms of breast cancer can save your life.
When the disease is detected in its early initial stages, the range of treatments available is wider and more varied, and the chances of a full recovery are very great.
Symptoms of breast cancer include:
- Discharge of a clear or blood-like substance from the nipple, sometimes with the appearance of a lump in the breast
- Nipple retraction or indentation
- Change in the size or features of the breast
- Flatness or indentation of the skin covering the breast
- The appearance of redness or wrinkled skin on the surface of the breast, such as an orange peel.
Most of the lumps that are discovered in the breast are not malignant, yet the most common early sign of breast cancer in women and men alike is the emergence of a lump or thickening in the breast tissue. This lump is usually painless.
Causes and risk factors of breast cancer
- Breast cancer means that a number of breast cells have begun to multiply abnormally. These cells divide more quickly than normal cells and can begin to spread (metastasis) throughout breast tissue, into lymph nodes, and even to other organs in the body.
- The most common type of breast cancer begins in the milk-producing glands, but it can also begin in one of the sub-lobes or other breast tissue.
- In most cases, it is not clear why healthy cells in breast tissue turn into cancer cells.
Causes of breast cancer
Doctors know the causes of the disease as follows:
Heredity: only 5% – 10% of breast cancer cases are due to genetic causes. There are families with a defect in one or two genes, breast cancer gene number 1 (BRCA 1) or breast cancer gene number 2 (BRCA 2), and this is the possibility of their sons and daughters developing breast cancer or ovarian cancer Too loud.
Other genetic defects (defects): such as the ataxia-telangiectasia mutation gene), the cell cycle barrier 2 kinase (CHEK – 2), and gene number P53, the gene responsible for curbing tumors – all increase the risk of breast cancer. If one of these genetic defects exists in your family, then there is a 50% chance that the defect also exists in you.
Most of the genetic defects related to breast cancer are not inherited.
The cause of these acquired defects may be due to exposure to radiation – women who have been treated with radiation in the chest area to treat lymphoma in childhood or adolescence, the stage of breast growth and development, are much more likely to develop breast cancer than women who have not been exposed to radiation Like this.
Genetic changes may also occur as a result of exposure to carcinogenic substances, such as some hydrocarbons, found in tobacco and charred red meat.
Today researchers are trying to find out if there is any relationship between a person’s genetic makeup and environmental factors that may increase the risk of developing breast cancer. And it may prove that many factors may cause breast cancer.
Risk factors of breast cancer
A risk factor is anything that increases your odds of developing a specific disease. Some risk factors, such as age, gender, and family history, cannot be changed, while a person can control others, such as smoking or poor diet.
However, even if you have one or more risk factors, this does not necessarily mean that you will develop breast cancer, as the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer are only infected because they are women and do not have any other additional risk factors.
In fact, being a woman is the single most important risk factor for breast cancer. Although men are also at risk of developing breast cancer, it is much more common among women.
Other risk factors that can increase the risk of breast cancer:
- A personal history of breast cancer
- Family history
- Hereditary tendency
- Exposure to radiation
- Menstruation at a relatively early age
- Reaching the age of menopause (menopause – “menopause”) at a relatively late age
- Hormone therapy
- Take birth control pills
- Precancerous changes in breast tissue
- The high density of breast tissue by mammography.
Other possible causes of non-cancerous (benign) breast lumps include:
- Fibrocystic changes
- Cystic cysts
- Infection or injury
- Diagnosing breast cancer
- Diagnosing breast cancer
There are two types of mammograms:
- Scanning mammography
- Diagnostic mammography
- Computer-Aided Detection (CAD)
- Digital mammography.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Diagnostic procedures
- Unlike scanning, diagnostic procedures help to identify and characterize anomalies in breast tissue that are detected by routine examinations, such as detecting a lump in the breast by touch, or by mammography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Types of inventions that exist today:
- Fine needle biopsy.
- Thick needle biopsy (Coreneedle)
- Stereotactic biopsy
- Metal wire positioning
- Surgical biopsy
- Estrogen and progesterone receptor test (Biopsy)
Genetic or genetic tests
Classification of carcinoid tumor
Breast cancer treatment
Surgeries to remove breast cancer include:
- The removal of the cancerous tumor
- Surgeries to remove a cancerous tumor are always followed by radiotherapy, in order to destroy any cancer cells that might have remained in place.
Types of mastectomy surgeries
- Partial or sectional excision of the breast
- Simple resection
- Total mastectomy.
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy
Excision of axillary lymph nodes
Breast reconstruction (reconstructive) surgery
Types of breast reconstruction (reconstructive) include:
- By implanting an artificial tissue
- By a personal tissue fold
- Deep inferior epigastric perforator – DIEP
- Reconstruction of the nipple and areola area.
2- Radiation Therapy / Radiation Therapy
4- Hormone therapy
5- Biological treatment
- Trastuzumab (Herceptin)
- Bevacizumab (Avastin)
Breast cancer prevention
1- Prevention by chemical means
- Tamoxifen (Tamoxifen)
2- Surgery as a preventive measure
- Mastectomy as a preventive measure
- Oophorectomy is a preventive measure.
3- Lifestyle changes
- Ask your doctor about taking aspirin
- Avoid consuming alcohol
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Avoid long-term hormonal treatments
- Engage in regular physical activity
- Eat foods rich in dietary fiber
- Increase the consumption of olive oil
- Avoid exposure to pesticides.
- Preventive treatments are possible
- Scientists continue research in an effort to develop possible preventive treatments to prevent breast cancer, including: